Heinkel He 112B-1/U-2 single-engine front-line fighter, 1938 series
Fighters of the He 112 B-1/U-2 variant were equipped with a Junkers Jumo 210Ea twelve-cylinder in-line liquid-cooled carburettor engine. In June 1938, after a Hungarian delegation visited Heinkel Flugzeugwerke AG, the Ministry of War of Hungary declared that it was ready to purchase 36 Не 112 fighters. But this request remained unfulfilled. In early 1939, only four machines got into the country, and one of them crashed almost immediately during its demonstration flight. The Hungarians soon refused to purchase the rest of the aircraft, because they considered the Junkers Jumo 210 engine be obsolete and underpowered for the fighter, and Heinkel was not allowed to sell the aircraft's variant which was equipped with Daimler-Benz DB 600 engines. Projects to organize the He 112's licensed production in Hungary were also unsuccessful. The three He 112 B-1/U-2s that were purchased did serve in the Hungarian Air Force, but they did not participate in combat operations and were used only for training purposes. By 1944, they were discarded due to damage and wear.
In early 1939, the Romanian government signed a contract for 24 He 112Bs, to equip two squadrons of the Romanian Air Force. The first 13 aircraft that the Romanians agreed to take were He 112 B-1/U-2 variants with Jumo 210 Еа engines.
During the summer of 1939, Romanian pilots came to the Regensburg airfield in groups of 10. There, they were retrained and then flew the fighters back to Bucharest themselves. In the course of training, one He 112B crashed, but the Germans later compensated for this loss with a new machine. By early October, all fighters had reached their destination. They formed the 5th Fighter Group, which comprised two squadrons.
Soon after the first He 112Bs arrived, the Romanians performed tests to compare the German fighter with the IAR 80, a new machine of their own design. The comparison was not in the German plane's favour. The engine's insufficient power was revealed. The IAR 80, equipped with a 900 hp engine and a larger wing, had a maximum speed approximately equal to the He 112B, but it outperformed its rival in manoeuvrability, rate of climb, and service ceiling. In addition, it was easier to pilot. The He 112B's cannon armament was its only advantage, since the IAR 80 had nothing besides rifle-calibre machine guns.
A total of 17 He 112 B-1/U-2 fighters were produced.